Sunday, May 28, 2017

Those Normans in Italy

First a happy birthday wish for my oldest son, Marty.  May you enjoy the day, the year, and many more to come!

I must go back and add this interesting article, for those who read what Wikipedia had given me already...about the Tancred part of the Norman rule in Sicily. I left a few days ago wondering how Tancred IV had been sired by a deceased Tancred III and a mother also either deceased or married to someone else...according to my Ancestry tree.  (Insert emoticon here of looking crosseyed and confused.)  I'm still working on that!

Here's another version of much the same story about the Crusades and the wars of Sicily and it's Norman rule (which says it only lasted 125 years, not 700.)

Taormina, Sicily, Italy


From Encyclopedia Britannica:

Tancred

KING OF SICILY
Alternative Titles: Tancred of Lecce, Tancredi




Tancred
KING OF SICILY
ALSO KNOWN AS
  • Tancred of Lecce
  • Tancredi
DIED
February 20, 1194
TITLE / OFFICE
FAMILY / DYNASTY
VIEW BIOGRAPHIES RELATED TOCATEGORIES
DATES
TancredItalian Tancredi (died Feb. 20, 1194Palermo), king of Sicily whose brief reign marked the end of the Norman rule there.
An illegitimate son of Duke Roger of Apulia and grandson of Roger II, king of Sicily, Tancred joined an insurrection in 1155 against his uncle William I of Sicily and was imprisoned for five years. Released, he participated in another abortive coup in 1161 and went into exile.
Thirteen years later, forgiven his disloyalty to William I, Tancred led William II’sexpedition against Alexandria and later commanded a Sicilian fleet. William II’s death in 1189 without direct heirs found Tancred a serious contender for the throne. Opposed by the feudal barons but backed by the people and the papacy, he was crowned king in 1190. The first year of his reign was troubled by an anti-Muslim riot and by the stormy visit of Richard I the Lion-Heart of England and Philip Augustus of France on their way to the Third Crusade. Richard demanded a legacy promised him by William II and the restoration of the dowry of his sister Joan, William’s widow. During the six months he spent in Sicily while negotiations continued, Richard provoked a riot in Messina, which he then put down by plundering, burning, and occupying the city. Tancred bought peace by yielding to Richard’s financial demands, and in March 1191 Richard departed.
In 1191 the Holy Roman emperor Henry VI, who claimed the Sicilian throne through his wife, Constance I (daughter of Roger II), marched south to claim Constance’s inheritance. He invaded Tancred’s mainland territory and unsuccessfully besieged Naples. Constance remained in Salerno when he retreated and fell into Tancred’s hands. Tancred gave in to pressure by the pope to release his valuable hostage to papal custody, but en route Constance managed to escape and return to Germany.
Three years later Henry made a fresh attempt on Sicily, his campaign partly financed by the ransom paid for Richard I the Lion-Heart, who had been made a prisoner in Germany. Before Henry reached Sicily, Tancred died suddenly, leaving only a young son, William III. The barons rallied to Henry, who was crowned king of Sicily on Christmas Day, 1194. Tancred’s family was promised safe conduct but, under pretext of the discovery of a plot, was seized and sent in captivity to Germany, where William III died, probably murdered, ending the 125-year Norman rule of Sicily.

Saturday, May 27, 2017

From Sicily to England

My line didn't continue to be the royal folks in Sicily, but diverged into England eventually.

The first to be called Fitz Roger was:
Aaron I Fitz Roger b. abt 1249, Rome Italy, d. 1335 Somerset, England  (Fitz means son of)
------------------------------
"...This ancestry left a large number of descendants in Sicily, South Italy, Naples and Rome; and during three generations, the sons of Roger (called 'Fitz Roger'), variously flourished in and about the papal city; and finally one "Aaron Fitz Roger" (in England) alleged - a merchant of  Rome, from fear of persecution from the Roman Church, fled with his family to London, and engaged in mercantile business there.

 "And as evidence of Sicilian-Roger ancestry, the father and sons claimed the right to bear the coat-of-arms accredited to Gr.-Ct. Roger I of Sicily.  Whatever grounds there were for such legendary tradition of said family - the resultant fact is, that such a family did exist; and that a branch thereof located in the Co. of Kent, not far from London; and that another member went prospecting to the West of England, and either he or his son was the ROGER who m. the Furneaux heiress.  Therefore the absolutely certain record of the ROGERS FAMILY starts with the Norman-Italian emigrant to England, as its unquestioned English Patriarch." [More about the English Rogers tomorrow!]

John Cox Underwood
---------------


Background information reviewed:


Roger Tancred Castile de Hauteville, King of both Sicilys b. abt. 1130 Sicily d.1192 Sicily

"... King of both Sicily's, b. 1093-4 & d 1154 2/26, suc to the throne on the dth of his bro. Simon 1105; but his mother governed during his minority.  The antipope, Anacletus II, on 1129 9/27, confirmed to him the strange title of 'King of Sicily and Italy' which was modified in 1139 & confirmed to him by Pope Innocent II upon their reconciliation.

Consequently the 1st Norman royal ruler of that Island, was:  KING ROGER II of Sicily; and he was an active, energetic ruler, extending his domain in Italy, and throughout adjacent islands of the sea; and altogether, his reign was firm and prosperous.  He was suc, before his dth. by his son WILLIAM I - 'the Bad,'  who r. 1151-1166; and he, suc. by his son WILLIAM II, - the 'Good,' who r. 1166-1189, whose Queen Johanna, dau. of Henry of Anjou and England, was childless.  So, on his dth, the cr. passed to an illegitimate gr. son of King Roger.

from "Tancred, King of both Sicily's "by John Cox Underwood
 ------------------------

Roger Tancred 1130-1192 had a son Roger Tancred III who d. in 1193. He married Irene Angelos, who apparently didn't have any children by him, according to Wikipedia (as follows:

Irene Angelina (1181 – 1208) was the daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos by his first wife Herina Tornikaina. 

In 1193 she married Roger III of Sicily, but he died on 24 December 1193. Irene was captured in the German invasion of Sicily on 29 December 1194 and was married on 25 May 1197 to Philip of Swabia. In Germany, she was renamed Maria.

Philip and Irene had four daughters, and two sons who died in infancy.

After the murder of her husband [need more info here!] (21 April 1208), Irene - who was pregnant by that time - retired to the Burg Hohenstaufen. There, four months later (27 August 1208), she gave birth to a daughter (called Beatrice Postuma); but both mother and child died shortly afterwards. She was buried in the family mausoleum in the Staufen proprietary monastery of Lorch Abbey, along with her daughter and sons. Her grave, now destroyed, cannot be reconstructed today.
----------------------------------
But wait, who was Tancred IV (born 1223) then? I look on Ancestry, and there he is (see screen capture below)

My tree clearly says he was son of Tancred III (died 1193) and Irene (died 1208).  But he wasn't born while his father was still alive...thus another time his mother gave birth after a husband had died.  Something about this seems fishy, and I would imagine the story wasn't correctly recorded at some point.  She obviously didn't die giving birth, or the daughters with Phillip wouldn't have been born later.

So that's a bit of a stumbling block, isn't it?

But the quoted text at the beginning of my post does say, somehow...there may well have been more children/parents/cousins involved than got on the tree!


There was someone named Aaron Fitz Roger who came to England from Italy, whoever he was descended from!

I'll go with him!


Friday, May 26, 2017

Roger II, King of Sicily

Statue of the Norman King Roger II of Sicily in a niche on the facade of the royal Palace in the Piazza of Plebiscito, Naples. Carved in 1888.


Detail of the mosaic with Roger II receiving the crown by Christ, Martorana, Palermo. The mosaic carries an inscription Rogerios Rex in Greek letters.


Roger II was the son of Count Roger de Hauteville, (see yesterday's blog.)
King Roger II of Sicily was born Dec. 22, 1095 in Sicily, and died Feb 26, 1154 in Sicily.

Roger II riding to war, from Liber ad honorem Augusti of Petrus de Ebulo, 1196.

 Roger's tomb in the Cathedral of Palermo.
-----------------------------------
Here's what Wikepdia has to say about him:

Roger II (22 December 1095[1] – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of Sicily in 1105, later became Duke of Apulia and Calabria (1127), then King of Sicily (1130). It is Roger II's distinction to have united all the Norman conquests in Italy into one kingdom with a strong centralized government.

In the early decades of the 11th century, Norman adventurers came to southern Italy, initially to fight against the Saracens or the Byzantine Empire. These mercenaries not only fought the enemies of the Italian city-states, but in the following century they gradually became the rulers of the major polities south of Rome

At the time of the birth of his youngest son, in 1093, Roger I ruled the County of Sicily, his nephew, Roger Borsa, was the Duke of Apulia and Calabria, and a distant nephew, Richard II of Capua, was the Prince of Capua.

Alongside these three major rulers were a large number of minor counts, who effectively exercised sovereign power in their own localitites. These counts at least nominally owed their allegiance to one of these three Norman rulers, but such allegiance was usually weak and often ignored.[2]

When Roger I, Count of Sicily, died in 1101 the throne was assumed by his young son, Simon of Hauteville, who himself died but four years later.


Reign
Southern Italy in 1112 CE, at the time of Roger II's coming of age, showing the major states and cities. Numerous smaller city-states, usually under the suzerainty or vassalage of the larger states, are not shown.
The border of the Kingdom of Sicily in 1154, at the time of Roger's death, is shown by a thicker black line encircling most of southern Italy.

 Rise to power in Sicily
On the death of his elder brother, Simon of Hauteville, in 1105, Roger inherited the County of Sicily under the regency of his mother, Adelaide del Vasto. During this time the mother was assisted by such notables as Christodulus, the emir of Palermo.

In the summer of 1110, he was visited by the Norwegian king Sigurd Jorsalfare on his way to Jerusalem.

In 1112, Roger attained his age of majority and began his personal rule, being named "now knight, now Count of Sicily and Calabria" in a charter document dated June 12, 1112.[3]

In 1117, his mother, who had married Baldwin I of Jerusalem, returned to Sicily, and Roger married his first wife, Elvira, daughter of Alfonso VI of Castile and his Moorish concubine or wife, Zaida.
In 1122, William II, the Duke of Apulia and Roger's first cousin once removed, offered to renounce his remaining claims to Sicily as well as part of Calabria. Roger, in exchange, crossed the Straits of Messina to subjugate the duke's vassal, Count Jordan of Ariano. In doing so, he penetrated the Basilicata and took Montescaglioso.

Coronation mantle of Roger II

  Rise to power in southern Italy
When William II of Apulia died childless in July 1127, Roger claimed all Hauteville family possessions in the peninsula as well as the overlordship of the Principality of Capua, which had been nominally given to Apulia almost thirty years earlier. However, the union of Sicily and Apulia was resisted by Pope Honorius II and by the subjects of the duchy itself.
Royal investiture

The popes had long been suspicious of the growth of Norman power in southern Italy and at Capua in December, the pope [Pope Honorius] preached a crusade against Roger, setting Robert II of Capua and Ranulf II of Alife (his own brother-in-law) against him. After this coalition failed, in August 1128 Honorius invested Roger at Benevento as Duke of Apulia. The baronial resistance, which was backed by Naples, Bari, Salerno, and other cities whose aim was civic freedom, gave way. In September 1129 Roger was generally recognized as duke of Apulia by Sergius VII of Naples, Robert of Capua, and the rest. He began at once to enforce order in the duchy, where the ducal power had long been fading.
Upon the death of Pope Honorius in February 1130 there were two claimants to the papal throne. Roger supported Antipope Anacletus II against Innocent II. The reward was a crown, and, on 27 September 1130, Anacletus' papal bull made Roger king of Sicily. He was crowned in Palermo on the Christmas Day 1130.

Peninsular rebellions
This plunged Roger into a ten-year war. The famous Bernard of Clairvaux, Innocent's champion, organized a coalition against Anacletus and his "half-heathen king." He was joined by Louis VI of France, Henry I of England, and the Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor. Meanwhile southern Italy revolted.

In 1130, the Duchy of Amalfi revolted and in 1131, Roger sent John of Palermo across the Strait of Messina to join up with a royal troop from Apulia and Calabria and march on Amalfi by land while George of Antioch blockaded the town by sea and set up a base on Capri.[4] Amalfi soon capitulated.
In 1132, Roger sent Robert II of Capua and Ranulf II of Alife to Rome in a show of force in support of Anacletus. While they were away, Roger's half-sister Matilda, the wife of Ranulf, fled to Roger claiming abuse. Simultaneously, Roger annexed Ranulf's brother's County of Avellino. Ranulf demanded the restitution of both wife and countship. Both were denied, and Ranulf left Rome against orders, with Robert following.

First Roger dealt with a rebellion in Apulia, where he defeated and deposed Grimoald, Prince of Bari, replacing him with his second son Tancred. Meanwhile, Robert and Ranulf took papal Benevento. Roger went to meet them but was defeated at the Battle of Nocera on 25 July 1132. Roger retreated to Salerno.

The next year, Lothair III came down to Rome for his imperial coronation. The rebel leaders met with him there, but they were refused help because Lothair's force was too small.[5] With the emperor's departure, divisions in his opponents' ranks allowed Roger to reverse his fortunes. By July 1134, Roger's troops had forced Ranulf, Sergius, and the other ringleaders to submit. Robert was expelled from Capua and Roger installed his second son, Alfonso of Hauteville as Prince of Capua. Roger II's eldest son Roger was given the title of Duke of Apulia.

Meanwhile, Lothair's contemplated attack upon Roger had gained the backing of Pisa, Genoa, and the Byzantine emperor, each of whom feared the growth of a powerful Norman kingdom. A Pisan fleet led by the exiled prince of Capua laid anchor in Naples (1135). Ranulf joined Robert and Sergius there, encouraged by news coming from Sicily that Roger was fatally ill or even already dead. The important fortress of Aversa, among others, passed to the rebels, and only Capua resisted under the royal chancellor, Guarin. On June 5, however, Roger disembarked in Salerno, much to the surprise of the whole mainland provinces. The royal army, split in several forces, easily conquered Aversa and even Alife, the base of the natural rebel leader, Ranulf. Most of the rebels took refuge in Naples, which was besieged in July, but despite the poor health conditions within the city, Roger was not able to take it, and returned to Messina late in the year.

  Imperial invasion
In 1136, the long-awaited imperial army, led by Lothair and the duke of Bavaria, Henry the Proud, descended the peninsula to support the three rebels. Henry, Robert, and Ranulf took a large contingent of troops to besiege the peninsular capital of the kingdom, Salerno. Roger remained in Sicily, leaving its mainland garrisons helpless under the chancellor Robert of Selby, while even the Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus sent subsidies to Lothair. Salerno surrendered, and the large army of Germans and Normans marched to the very south of Apulia. There, in June 1137, Lothair besieged and took Bari. At San Severino, after the victorious campaign, he and the pope jointly invested Ranulf as duke of Apulia (August 1137), and the emperor then retired to Germany. Roger, freed from the utmost danger, immediately disembarked in Calabria, at Tropea, with 400 knights and other troops, probably mostly Muslims. After having been welcomed by the Salernitans, he recovered ground in Campania, sacking Pozzuoli, Alife, Capua, and Avellino. Sergius, terrified, was forced to acknowledge him as overlord of Naples and sway his allegiance to Anacletus: that moment marked the fall of an independent Neapolitan duchy, and thereafter the ancient city was fully integrated into the Norman realm.

Thence Roger moved to Benevento and northern Apulia, where Duke Ranulf, although steadily losing his bases of power, had some German troops plus some 1,500 knight from the cities of Melfi, Trani, Troia, and Bari, who were "ready to die instead to lead a miserable life." On 30 October 1137, at the Battle of Rignano (next to Monte Gargano), the younger Roger and his father, with Sergius of Naples, met the defensive army of Duke Ranulf. It was the greatest defeat of Roger II's career. His son fought with courage, and Sergius died honourably in battle, but Roger himself fled the field to Salerno. It capped the meteoric career of Ranulf: twice victor over Roger. Anacietus II died in January 1138, but Innocent II refused to reconcile with the King.

In Spring 1138, the royal army invaded the Principality of Capua, with the precise intent of avoiding a pitched battle and of dispersing Ranulf's army with a series of marches along sharp terrain. While the count of Alife lacked decision, Roger, now supported by Benevento, destroyed all the rebels' castles in the region, capturing an immense booty. Ranulf himself, who had taken refuge in Troia, his capital, was killed by a malaric fever on 30 April 1139. Later, Roger exhumed him from the Troian cathedral in which he was buried and threw him in a ditch, only to later repent and rebury him decently.

At this time, Sergius being dead, Alfonso was elected in his place and together with his brother Roger, went off to conquer the Abruzzi.

  Consolidation of kingship
After the death of Anacletus in January 1138, Roger had sought the confirmation of his title from Pope Innocent. However, the pope wanted an independent Principality of Capua as a buffer state between the Kingdom of Sicily and the Papal States, something Roger would not accept.[6] In the summer of 1139, Innocent II invaded the kingdom with a large army, but was ambushed at Galluccio on (22 July 1139),[7] southeast of present-day Cassino, by Roger's son and was captured. Three days later, by the Treaty of Mignano, the pope proclaimed Roger II as rex Siciliae ducatus Apuliae et principatus Capuae. The boundaries of his regno were only later fixed by a truce with the pope in October 1144.

 These lands were for the next seven centuries to constitute the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily.

In 1139, Bari, where during the wars of the past year, 50,000 inhabitants had remained unscathed behind the massive walls, decided to surrender: the excellentissimus princeps Jaquintus, who had led the rebellion of the city, was hanged together with many of his followers, but the city avoided a sack. His execution of the prince and his counsellors was perhaps the most violent act of Roger's life.
While his sons overcame pockets of resistance on the mainland, on 5 November 1139 Roger returned to Palermo to plan a great act of legislation: the Assizes of Ariano an attempt to establish his dominions in southern Italy as a coherent state. He returned to check up on his sons' progress in 1140 and then went to Ariano, a town central to the peninsular possessions (and a centre of rebellion under his predecessors). There he promulgated the great law regulating all Sicilian affairs. It invested the king and his bureaucracy with absolute powers and reduced the authority of the often rebellious vassals. While there, centralising his kingdom, Roger declared a new standard coinage, named after the duchy of Apulia: the ducat.



"The Cappella Palatina, at Palermo, the most wonderful of Roger's churches, with Norman doors, Saracenic arches, Byzantine dome, and roof adorned with Arabic scripts, is perhaps the most striking product of the brilliant and mixed civilization over which the grandson of the Norman Trancred ruled" (EB1911).

Saracen arches and Byzantine mosaics complement each other within the Palatine Chapel. The Palatine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Palatina) is the royal chapel of the Norman kings of Sicily situated on the ground floor at the center of the Palazzo Reale in Palermo.

Roger had now become one of the greatest kings in Europe. At Palermo, Roger drew round him distinguished men of various races, such as the famous Arab geographer Idrisi and the Greek historian Nilus Doxopatrius. The king welcomed the learned, and he practised toleration towards the several creeds, races and languages of his realm. To administer his domain he hired many Greeks and Arabs, who were trained in long-established traditions of centralized government.[8] He was served by men of nationality as dissimilar as the Englishman Thomas Brun, a kaid of the Curia, and, in the fleet, first by Christodulus and then George of Antioch, whom he made in 1132 ammiratus ammiratorum or "Emir of Emirs," in effect prime vizier. This title gave way to the English word admiral. Roger made Sicily the leading maritime power in the Mediterranean.

A powerful fleet was built up under several admirals, or "emirs", of whom the greatest was George, formerly in the service of the Muslim prince of Mahdia. Mainly thanks to him, a series of conquests were made on the African coast (1135–1153). Tripoli was captured in 1146 and Cape Bona in 1148. These conquests were lost in the reign of Roger's successor William and never formed an integral part of the kingdom.

The Second Crusade (1147–1148) offered Roger an opportunity to revive the attacks against the Byzantine Empire, the traditional Norman enemy to the East. It also afforded him an opportunity, through the agency of Theodwin, a cardinal ever-vigilant for Crusade supporters, to strike up a correpondance with Conrad III of Germany in an effort to break his alliance with Manuel I Comnenus. Roger never went himself on an expedition against Byzantium, handing over the command to the skillful George. In 1147, George set sail from Otranto with seventy galleys to assault Corfu. According to Nicetas Choniates, the island capitulated thanks to George's bribes (and the tax burden of the imperial government), welcoming the Normans as their liberators. Leaving a garrison, George sailed on to the Peloponnesus. He sacked Athens and quickly moved on to the Ionian Islands. He ravaged the coast all along Euboea and the Gulf of Corinth and penetrated as far as Thebes, Greece, where he pillaged the silk factories and carried off the Jewish damask, brocade, and silk weavers, taking them back to Palermo where they formed the basis for the Sicilian silk industry. George capped the expedition with a sack of Corinth, in which the relics of Saint Theodore were stolen, and then returned to Sicily. In 1149, however, Corfu was retaken. George went on a punitive expedition against Constantinople, but could not land and instead defied the Byzantine emperor by firing arrows against the palace windows. Yet the attack on the empire had no enduring results.
The king died at Palermo on 26 February 1154, and was buried in the Cathedral of Palermo. He was succeeded by his fourth son William. Roger II's elaborate coronation cloak, later used by the Holy Roman Emperors, is now in the Imperial Treasury (Schatzkammer) in Vienna. Roger is the subject of King Roger, a 1926 opera by Polish composer Karol Szymanowski.

  Family
Roger's first marriage was in 1117 to Elvira of Castile, a daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile. They had six children:
  1. Roger (b. 1118 - d. 12 May 1148), heir, Duke of Apulia (from 1135), possibly also Count of Lecce;
  2. Tancred (b. 1119 - d. 1138), Prince of Bari (from 1135).
  3. Alfonso (b. 1120/1121 - d. 10 October 1144), Prince of Capua (from 1135) and Duke of Naples;
  4. Adelisa (b. ca.1126? - d. aft.1184), Countess di Florenzia in her own right; married firstly with Joscelin, Conte di Loreto, and secondly with Robert, Conte di Loritello e Conversano.
  5. William (b. 1131 - d. 7 May 1166), his successor, Duke of Apulia (from 1148);
  6. Henry (b. 1135 - d. young).
Roger's second marriage was in 1149 to Sybille of Burgundy, daughter of Hugh II, Duke of Burgundy. They had two children:
  1. Henry (b. 29 August 1149 - d. young);
  2. Stillborn child (16 September 1150).
Roger's third marriage was in 1151 to Beatrix of Rethel, a grandniece of King Baldwin II of Jerusalem. They had a daughter:
  1. Constance (b. posthumously 2 November 1154 - d. 28 November 1198), married with the Emperor Henry VI, who became King of Sicily in his right.
Roger also had several illegitimate children. One illegitimate daughter, Marina, married the great admiral Margaritus of Brindisi. Another illegitimate child, Simon, became the Prince of Taranto.
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Another source gives a bit of information about the succession of Roger II:

b. 1093-4 & d 1154 2/26, suc to the throne on the dth of his bro. Simon 1105; but his mother governed during his minority.  The antipope, Anacletus II, on 1129 9/27, confirmed to him the strange title of 'King of Sicily and Italy' which was modified in 1139 & confirmed to him by Pope Innocent II upon their reconciliation.  Consequently the 1st Norman royal ruler of that Island, was:  KING ROGER II of Sicily; and he was an active, ewnergetic ruler, extending his domain in Italy, and throughout adjacent islands of the sea; and altogether, his reign was firm and prosperous.  He was suc, before his dth. by his son WILLIAM I - 'the Bad,'  who r. 1151-1166; and he, suc. by his son WILLIAM II, - the 'Good,' who r. 1166-1189, whose Queen Johanna, dau. of Henry of Anjou and England, was childless.  So, on his dth, the cr. passed to an illegitimate gr. son of King Roger."
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When I read these details for the third time, I noticed King Roger's son William I became ruler in 1151, while King Roger didn't die until 1154...is that strange sounding to you? It is to me. Perhaps he was sick and gave his son the crown...I wonder.

And still, where do these Norman/Sicilian Rogers connections come to my own family? Come back tomorrow on my blog (I'm doing genealogy all week...who knows, maybe all month! OK, probably not that long!)

I'm going to add this post to Sepia Saturday, to share the ancient and confusing history of Italy in the time of it's dukedoms, and the strife over the Papal states...though I have very little knowledge of those histories.  And I can sigh that the royalty of Sicily didn't continue to have my line, according to Ancestry at least, as I'll share tomorrow.)

Apologies for all the length of detail, which would probably make anyone snooze.  But I just don't have any sepia photos related to this week's topic...





Thursday, May 25, 2017

Sir Roger de Hauteville

 Sir Roger Guiscard de Hauteville was the Grand Count of Sicily. He was born in Sicily about 1031 and died there June 22, 1101.


His Wikipedia information is intriguing:

Roger I of Sicily at the battle of Cerami—victorious against 35,000 Saracens—in 1061.
Roger I (1031 – June 22, 1101), called Bosso and the Great Count, was the Norman Count of Sicily from 1071 to 1101. He was the last great leader of the Norman conquest of southern Italy.
Roger was the youngest son of Tancred of Hauteville by his second wife Fredisenda. He arrived in Southern Italy soon after 1055.
Malaterra, who compares Robert Guiscard and his brother to "Joseph and Benjamin of old," says of Roger: "He was a youth of the greatest beauty, of lofty stature, of graceful shape, most eloquent in speech and cool in counsel. He was far-seeing in arranging all his actions, pleasant and merry all with men; strong and brave, and furious in battle." Roger shared the conquest of Calabria with Robert, and in a treaty of 1062 the brothers in dividing the conquest apparently made a kind of "condominium" by which either was to have half of every castle and town in Calabria.
Robert now resolved to employ Roger's genius in reducing Sicily, which contained, besides the Muslims, numerous Greek Christians subject to Arab princes who had become all but independent of the sultan of Tunis. In May 1061 the brothers crossed from Reggio and captured Messina. After Palermo had been taken in January 1072, Robert Guiscard, as suzerain, invested Roger as Count of Sicily, but he retained Palermo, half of Messina, and the north-east portion (the Val Demone). Not till 1085, however, was Roger able to undertake a systematic crusade.
In March 1086 Syracuse surrendered, and when in February 1091 Noto yielded, the conquest was complete. Much of Robert's success had been due to Roger's support. Similarly, when the leadership of the Hautevilles passed to Roger, he supported his nephew Duke Roger against Bohemund, Capua, and other rebels. In return for his aid against Bohemund and the rebels, the duke surrendered his share in the castles of Calabria to his uncle in 1085, and in 1091 his inheritance in Palermo. Roger's rule in Sicily was more absolute than Robert Guiscard's in Italy. At the enfeoffments of 1072 and 1092 no great undivided fiefs were created, so the mixed Norman, French and Italian vassals all owed their benefices to the count. No feudal revolt of importance therefore troubled Roger.
In 1091 Roger, in order to avoid an attack from North Africa, set sail with a fleet to conquer Malta. His ship reached the island before the rest. On landing, the few defenders the Normans encountered retreated and the following day Roger marched to Mdina. Terms were discussed with the Maltese qadi. It was agreed that the islands would become tributaries of the count himself and that the qadi should continue to administer the islands. With the treaty many Greek and other Christian prisoners were released, who chanted to Roger the Kyrie eleison (Mulej Hniena). He left the islands with many who wished to join him and so many were on his ship that it nearly sunk, according to Goffredo Malaterra. Roger repatriated Malta to Christian Europe.
Politically supreme, the count also became master of the insular church. The Papacy, favouring a prince who had recovered Sicily from Greeks and Muslims, in 1098 granted Roger and his heirs the Apostolic Legateship of the island. Roger created new Latin bishoprics at Syracuse, Girgenti, and elsewhere, nominating the bishops personally, while he turned the archbishopric of Palermo into a Catholic see. Roger practised general toleration towards Arabs and Greeks, allowing to each race the expansion of its own civilization. In the cities, the Muslims, who had generally secured such rights in their terms of surrender, retained their mosques, their kadis, and freedom of trade; in the country, however, they became serfs. Roger drew the mass of his infantry from the Muslims. Saint Anselm, visiting him at the siege of Capua, 1098, found "the brown tents of the Arabs innumerable". Nevertheless, the Latin element began to prevail, as Lombards and other Italians flocked to the island in the wake of the conquest, and the conquest of Sicily proved decisive in the steady decline of Muslim power in the western Mediterranean from this time.
Roger, the "Great Count of Sicily," died on June 22, 1101, in his seventieth year and was buried in S. Trinità of Mileto.
[edit] FamilyRoger's eldest son was a bastard named Jordan, who predeceased him. His second son, Geoffrey, may have been a bastard, but may also have been a son of his first or second wife. Whatever the case, he was a leper with no chance of inheriting.
Roger's first marriage took place in 1061, to Judith, daughter of William, Count of Évreux and Hawisa of Échauffour. She died in 1076, leaving all daughters:
  1. A daughter, married Hugh of Gircea (or Gercé)
  2. Matilda, married Raymond IV of Toulouse
  3. Adelisa, married Henry, Count of Monte Sant'Angelo
  4. Emma (d.1120), briefly engaged to Philip I of France; married firstly the count of Clermont and secondly Rudolf, Count of Montescaglioso
In 1077, Roger married a second time, to Eremburga of Mortain, daughter of "William, Count of Mortain" (probably William Warlenc). Their children were:
  1. Mauger, Count of Troina
  2. Matilda, married Guigues III, Count of Albon
  3. Muriel, married Josbert de Lucy
  4. Constancia, married Conrad of Italy
  5. Felicia, married King Coloman of Hungary
  6. Violante, married Robert of Burgundy, son of Robert I of Burgundy
  7. Flandina, married Henry del Vasto
  8. Judith, married Robert I of Bassunvilla
Roger's third and last wife was Adelaide del Vasto, niece of Boniface, Lord of Savona. They married in 1087. Their children were:
  1. Simon, Count of Sicily
  2. Matilda, married Ranulf II, Count of Alife
  3. Roger II, Count, later King, of Sicily
  4. Maximilla, married Hildebrand VI (of the Aldobrandeschi family)
[edit] Sources
  • Geoffrey Malaterra
  • Norwich, John Julius. The Normans in the South 1016-1130. Longmans: London, 1967.
  • Houben, Hubert (translated by Graham A. Loud and Diane Milburn). Roger II of Sicily: Ruler between East and West. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Preceded by
Count of Sicily
1071–1101Succeeded by
Simon
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_I_of_Sicily"
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Another source gives this information, not totally the same as that above:
Sir Roger de Hauteville
b. 1030 & d. 1101-2, a great commander as well as his bro. Robert, who by bravery, military genius and his own energetic exertions, attained nobility and became:  1st.-Count (1080) & afterward Grand-Count ROGER I of Sicily, 1089-1102.   He received in 1098 from Pope Urban II, for himself and his successors, the title of 'Legate Apostical."  He m. twice, and his third son became King of Sicily.  His first wife was Cremburga, by whom he had a son Jordan - who d. 1093 while his father was living; his second wfe. was Adalasia, and by her he had two sons - the eld. Simon, suc. his father, but dying shortly thereafter (1105), was sec. by his younger bro. Roger. ) 
 From Anderson's "Royal Genealogies"; another record states, that his wife was 'Margaret of Monferrat')" 

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How much further down this tree before the Rogers appeared? I'm not sure yet...as they obviously had centuries to blossom and then to come to the shores of America.  I'll look further for you tomorrow.

Wednesday, May 24, 2017

Normandy and Sicily for Rogers roots

My grandmother, Ada Swasey, married George Elmore Rogers...there are some interesting lines in Ancestry that my cousin, Patricia has listed.

They aren't in my own family tree because I've not yet decided that all those parents really had those kids.  I'm the "doubter" among the sheep apparently.  But she's (my cousin) in DAR, and lots of other Daughters of ancestors groups, so these people have been accepted by some professional genealogists.

Fartest back on the Rogers listing is "Haliti de Hauteville," living in about the mid-9th century, without known dates, born around 855.

Coat of Arms of the Hauteville family


Wikepia shares:
The family of the Hauteville (French: Maison de Hauteville, Italian: Casa d'Altavilla, Sicilian: Casa d'Autavilla) was a petty baronial Norman family from the Cotentin which rose to prominence in Europe, Asia, and Africa through its conquests in the Mediterranean, especially Southern Italy and Sicily. They also participated in the Norman Conquest of England.
Origins

Department of Manche, location of Hauteville-la-Guichard
The familial origins had roots from the Norsemen Vikings who had settled in Normandy in the 10th century. In Geoffrey Malaterra's account The Deeds of Count Roger of Calabria and Sicily and of His Brother Robert Guiscard, several allusions are made to the family's ties to the Viking conquest of Normandy by Rollo. They descended from Hiallt, a Norseman who settled in the Cotentin Peninsula and founded the village of Hialtus Villa (Hauteville) from which the family takes its name.[1][2][3]

From just which village of Hauteville, which may simply mean "high town", the family drew its name is hard to identify with certainty, though modern scholarship favours Hauteville-la-Guichard.
The first of the family well known to us is Tancred of Hauteville, the founder of the eponymous villa. He remained until his death (c. 1041) a minor baron of Normandy, but he had twelve sons and at least two daughters by two wives, Muriel and Fressenda. His small patrimony was hardly enough to satisfy his sons' desire for land and glory and so eight of the twelve went south to the Mezzogiorno to seek their fortunes there.

Mezzogiorno
 Norman conquest of southern Italy
The eldest of the twelve sons, William and Drogo, were the first to arrive in the south sometime around 1035. They so distinguished themselves against the Greeks that William was inaugurated as count of Apulia and Calabria and lord of Ascoli, Drogo as lord of Venosa. In 1047, Drogo was confirmed by the Emperor Henry III as William's heir and a direct vassal of the imperial crown. Their next brother, Humphrey, succeeded Drogo and defeated Pope Leo IX at the Battle of Civitate, making the Hauteville power the highest in the region. He was in turn succeeded by a fourth brother, Robert Guiscard, the first son by Tancred's second wife.

It was Robert who began the conquest of Sicily which was to yield a kingdom seventy years later, as he renewed the war against Byzantium with vigor. Along with the valiant warriorship displayed by his youngest brother, Roger Bosso, the two began to amass notoriety around the Mediterranean.[4]

According to William of Apulia's The Deeds of Robert Guiscard
, although his Norse roots would seem to suggest otherwise, until the invasion of Sicily, Guiscard had not participated in naval warfare.[5] It was during this conquest that Guiscard and his amphibious command pioneered the ability to transport over 200 troops in a mere 13 vessels, an advantage that would have an influence in the Norman invasion of England. [6] In 1059 he was created duke by the pope and invested with as yet unconquered Sicily, which he gave, in 1071, to his brother Roger with the title of count. The Guiscard's heirs, Bohemond and Roger Borsa, fought over the inheritance and Roger of Sicily began to outshine the Apulian branch of the family.

Roger united the Greek, Lombard, Norman, and Saracen elements of Sicily under one rule and refused to allow religious differences to spoil his conquests. By utilizing a tactic similar to the contemporary Spanish convention of La Convivencia, Roger was able to employ a policy of "conquest by accommodation" in order to unite the island in spite of being significantly outnumbered by the inhabiting Muslim population [7]. Roger bequeathed a powerful state to his young sons, Simon and Roger. It was this Roger who, upon inheriting all from Simon in 1105, began the quest to unite into one all the Hauteville domains: Apulia and Calabria (then under Borsa's son William II) and Taranto (which had been given to Bohemond as a consolation for being deprived of Apulia) with his own Sicily.

Kingdom of Sicily
On William's death in 1127, the union of the duchy and the county was effected and Roger's quest for a crown began. Believing kings to have ruled Palermo in antiquity, Roger threw his support behind the Antipope Anacletus II and was duly enthroned as king of Sicily on Christmas Day 1130.
Roger spent most of the decade beginning with his coronation and ending with his great Assizes of Ariano fending off one invader or other and quelling rebellions by his premier vassals: Grimoald of Bari, Robert of Capua, Ranulf of Alife, Sergius of Naples, etc. In 1139, by the Treaty of Mignano, Roger received the recognition of his kingship from the legitimate pope. It was through his admiral George of Antioch that Roger then proceeded to conquer the Mahdia in Africa, taking the unofficial title "king of Africa."

Roger's son and successor was William the Bad, though his nickname derives primarily from his lack of popularity with the chroniclers, who supported the baronial revolts William crushed. His reign ended in peace (1166), but his son, William the Good, was a minor. During the boy regency until 1172, the kingdom saw turmoil which almost brought the ruling family down, but eventually the realm settled down and the reign of the second William is remembered as two decades of almost continual peace and prosperity. For this more than anything, he is nicknamed "the Good." His death without heirs in 1189 threw the realm into chaos, however.

Tancred of Lecce seized the throne but had to contend with the revolt of his distant cousin Roger of Andria and the invasion of Henry VI of Germany on behalf of his wife, Constance, the daughter of Roger II. Constance and Henry eventually prevailed and the kingdom fell in 1194 to the Hohenstaufen. Through Constance, however, the Hauteville blood was passed to the great Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.

Crusades The aforementioned Bohemond received in 1088, as a consolation, the principality of Taranto district from the duchy of Apulia which fell as per their father's will to his brother Roger Borsa. Bohemond did not long remain to enjoy his new principality, for while besieging Amalfi with his uncle and brother, he joined a passing band of Crusaders on their way to Palestine. Among his army was a nephew of his, a young man named Tancred.

Bohemond was the natural leader of the crusading host but, through a trick, he took Antioch and did not continue on to Jerusalem with the rest of the army, instead remaining in the newly-conquered city to carve out a principality for himself there. Tancred also left the main Crusade at Heraclea Cybistra to fight for territory in Cilicia. A great state like the one his cousins were forging in Europe, however, was impossible for Bohemond. He was defeated badly at the Battle of Harran and forced later to sign the Treaty of Devol with Byzantium. Nevertheless, his son Bohemond II inherited the Crusader state. He in turn gave it to his only daughter, Constance, who ruled it until 1163.

Tancred had great luck in carving out a principality around Galilee with the grants of Godfrey of
Bouillon, but he relinquished this in 1101.

Genealogy Tancred and his first wife Muriel (or Muriella) had the following issue:
  • William Iron Arm, count of Apulia (1042–1046)
  • Drogo, count of Apulia (1046–1051)
  • Humphrey, count of Apulia (1051–1057)
    • Abelard (d.1081)
    • Herman, count of Cannae (1081–1097)
  • Geoffrey, count of the Capitanate (d.1071)
    • Robert I, count of Loritello (1061–1107)
      • Robert II, count of Loritello (1107–1137)
        • William, count of Loritello (1137, d.?)
  • Sarlo (or Serlo) I, heir to estates in Normandy
    • Sarlo II (d.1072) married the daughter of Roger de Moulins Count of Boiano.
      • Sarlo III descending from which the Marquis Sarlo of Calabria
Tancred and his second wife Fressenda (or Fedesenda) had the following issue:
  • Robert Guiscard, count (1057–1059) and duke of Apulia (1059–1085)
    • Bohemond I, prince of Taranto (1088–1111) and Antioch (1098–1111)
      • Bohemond II, prince of Taranto (1111–1128) and Antioch (1111–1131)
        • Constance, Princess of Antioch (1131–1163)
    • Roger Borsa, duke of Apulia (1085–1111)
      • William II, duke of Apulia (1111–1127)
    • Guy, duke of Amalfi and Sorrento (d.1107)
    • Robert Scalio (d.1110)
    • Emma of Apulia
      • Tancred, Prince of Galilee (1072–1112)
      • William
  • Mauger, count of the Capitanate (1056–1059)
  • William, count of the Principate (1056–1080)
    • Richard of Salerno, regent of the County of Edessa (1104–1108, d.1114)
      • Roger of Salerno, regent of the Principality of Antioch (1112–1119)
  • Aubrey (also Alberic, Alberad, Alvered, Alvred, or Alfred), stayed in Normandy
  • Hubert (also Humbert), stayed in Normandy
  • Tancred, stayed in Normandy
  • Roger Bosso, count of Sicily (1071–1101)
    • Jordan, count of Syracuse (1091–1092)
    • Geoffrey, count of Ragusa
    • Mauger, count of Troina
    • Simon, count of Sicily (1101–1105)
    • Roger II, count (1105–1130) and king of Sicily (1130–1154)
      • Roger, duke of Apulia (1134–1148)
        • Tancred, count of Lecce and king of Sicily (1189–1194)
          • Roger III, king of Sicily (1193–1194)
          • William III, king of Sicily (1194)
      • Tancred, prince of Bari (1132–1138)
      • Alfonso, prince of Capua (1135–1144)
      • William I the Bad, king of Sicily (1154–1166)
        • Roger, duke of Apulia (1154–1161)
        • Robert
        • William II the Good, king of Sicily (1166–1189)
          • Bohemond, duke of Apulia (1181)
        • Henry, prince of Capua (1166–1172)
      • Henry
      • Simon, prince of Taranto (1128–1154)
      • Constance, queen of Sicily (1194–1198)
        • Frederick I of Sicily king of Sicily (1198–1250)
Relatives of unknown relationship include:
  • Tancred, count of Syracuse (fl. 1104)
  • Simon, count of Syracuse (fl. 1162), possibly a son of Roger II or nephew of Roger I.
References
  1. ^ Hill, James S. The place-names of Somerset. St. Stephen's printing works, 1914, Princeton University. Page 256
  2. ^ Revue de l'Avranchin et du pays de Granville, Volume 31, Issue 174, Parts 3-4. Société d'archéologie, de littérature, sciences et arts d'Avranches, Mortain, Granville. the University of Michigan.
  3. ^ Google books, The British Chronicles, Volume 2 By David Hughes, Page 527
  4. ^ Malaterra, Goffredo; Kenneth Baxter Wolf (2005). The Deeds of Count Roger of Calabria and Sicily and of His Brother Duke Robert Guiscard. USA: The University of Michigan Press. pp. 151. ISBN 0-472-11459-X.
  5. ^ G.A. Loud, William of Apulia (1963). M. Mathieu. ed. Palermo: Guillaume de Pouille.
  6. ^ Theotokis, Georgios (November 2010). "The Norman Invasion of Sicily, 1061-1072: Numbers and Military Tactics". War in History 17 (4): 381-402.
  7. ^ Stanton, C.D. (2010). "Roger de Hauteville, Emir of Sicily"
    . Mediterranean Historical Review 25 (2): 113-132.
Sources
  • European Commission presentation of The Normans
    Norman Heritage, 10th-12th century.
  • Norwich, John Julius. The Normans in the South 1016-1130. Longmans: London, 1967.
  • Norwich, John Julius. The Kingdom in the Sun 1130-1194. Longman: London, 1970.
  • Pierre Aubé, Roger II de Sicile. 2001.
  • Matthew, Donald. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Cambridge University Press: 1992.
  • Houben, Hubert. Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler between East and West. Trans. G. A. Loud and Diane Milbourne. Cambridge University Press: 2002.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Alexiad—complete text, translated Elizabeth A. Dawes
  • Ralph of Caen. Gesta Tancredi. trans. Bernard S. and David S. Bachrach. Ashgate Publishing, 2005.
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Did you follow all that? Me neither!
More about Sir Roger of Sicily tomorrow!


Tuesday, May 23, 2017

Repost of more Swasey ancestors

I have so many other branches of my family to explore, looking for the earliest matriarchs that are listed in Ancestry on my trees. (repost from March 18, 2015 on "When I was 69.")

I continue to chase the ones from my father's mother's (5) Ada Swasey Rogers) family first.  Then there are my father's father's - oh my.  They go back a LOT further! (remembering my numerical system starts with my grandchildren as generation (1).

Yesterday I left the various branches of the Swasey's and Bowers, ending up with 9) Joseph Swasey who married 9) Mary Bowers. in 1744  Their son was 8) Jerathmel Bowers Swasey; b. 10 May 1752 in Somerset, Bristol, Massachusetts; d. 4 Feb 1826 in Somerset, Bristol, Massachusetts.

8) Jerathmel Swasey married 8) Sarah Hellon Swasey; b. 23 February 1757, D. 25 December 1836 in Somerset, Bristol County, Massachusetts.  I have no information on her parents.  Last year I posted information about 8) Jerathmel HERE.  (which includes several census records.)

There are no tree branches for the rest of the Swasey's wives until I get to my grandmother's own grandfather, 7) George T. Granger (1806 - ?).  His grandfather 9) Samuel Granger (1701-1739) married 9) Martha Marston (b, 23 Jan 1694 in Andover, Essex, Massachusetts, d. 19 Mar 1753 in Andover, Essex, Massachusetts).  

Taking 9) Samuel Granger's line first, his father, 10) John Granger (1654-1723) has a birth listed, but no mother.  His father is quite possibly 11) Lancelott Granger who lived in Andover MA when his son was born, and nothing else is recorded about him that Ancestry has found (yet.)

But 10) John Granger's wife 10) Martha Poor Granger (1654-1723) has another long branch or two to follow.

Her father 11) Daniel Poor Jr. (1623-1689)  was a barber who has a biography including when he immigrated to the American colonies of Massachusetts from Marborough, England.  And 10) Martha Poor Granger's mother was 11) Mary Farnham Poor (1628-1713) who had been born in Rochester, England.

Her mother was 12) Alice Farnham Martin

Monday, May 22, 2017

From Exeter to New York and Jamaica

A WEEK ON GENEALOGY!
Yesterday I shared information about the Sylvesters of Shelter Island.

But to get back to my matriarchal pursuits...(though you know of course this is no longer women's history month..but I can celebrate women's history any day of the week!)

11) Gissell Brinley Sylvester's parents were (numerically going back in history) 12) Thomas Reeves Brinley, (born 1591 in Exeter, Devon, England died 15 Oct 1661 in Datchett, Buckinghamshire, England) and 12) Anna Wase (b. 1606 in Petworth, Sussex, England, d. 13 Jun 1687 in Datchet, Buckinghamshire, England).  

12) Thomas Reeves Brinley is well documented as the "Auditor General of the Revenues of King Charles I and II."  He left England during the English Civil War by Cromwell, and returned to his post for King Charles II but died a year later.

12) Anna Wase had 8 children, and also went with her husband when the revolution of Cromwell made Royalists unpopular, and lived into her 80s probably back in her home of Datchet.

Her parents were 13) William Wase (b. May 1580 in Petworth, Sussex, England, d. 19 September 1642 in Datchet, Buckinghamshire, England) and 13) Ann Cole (b. 1582 as recorded in St. Leonard, Heston, London, Middlesex, England, death unknown.)  Apparently she married 13) William Wase when she was 16 in Petworth, Sussex, England.  There is no other information on her at Ancestry at this time.  But she is one of  the earliest matriarchs that I'll be mentioning today.

12) Thomas Reeves Brinley's mother was 13) Joanne Reeves (his middle name from her) (b. 1567 in Exeter, Devon, England, Death in (?) Exeter, Devon, England.)
An illustration of Exeter in 1563, entitled Civitas Exoniae (vulgo Excester) urbs primaria in comitatu Devoniae


Exeter has a wonderful history, dating from Roman times and before...and I can't begin to explore all that is in this town.  The map above would have been how it looked during Joanne Reeves lifetime.   
Image result for Exeter, Devon, Eng
Exeter Cathedral, completed 1400
Looking back to the Sylvesters of Shelter Island, I just want to show their connection to my family.  Their daughter 10) Ann Sylvester married 10) Capt. Jonathan Bowers in 1695. 

Ancestry has lots of confusing listings for poor 10) Ann Sylvester Bowers, with different birth places, dates, different marriage places and dates, and different death places and dates.  Wherever she may be buried, may she rest in peace. 

Their daughter, 9) Mary Bowers married 9) Joseph Swasey, my grandmother's third great grandparents. (Grandmother was Ada Swasey Rogers.)

And as noted yesterday, Nathaniel "... Sylvester and his associates were part of the Triangle Trade between the American colonies (including the Caribbean), Africa and England. His descendants continued to use slaves on the plantation into the 19th century. An estimated 200 blacks are buried at the Negro Burying Ground on the North Peninsula.[4]

I am a descendent of slave owners, (the guilt is upon my grandfathers, not me) and it appears the Sylvesters also were involved with slave traders...which is what the Triangle Trade means.
  Wikepedia says:
"A classic example[of the Triangle Trade] is the colonial molasses trade. Sugar (often in its liquid form, molasses) from the Caribbean was traded to Europe or New England, where it was distilled into rum. The profits from the sale of sugar were used to purchase manufactured goods, which were then shipped to West Africa, where they were bartered for slaves. The slaves were then brought back to the Caribbean to be sold to sugar planters. The profits from the sale of the slaves were then used to buy more sugar, which was shipped to Europe, restarting the cycle. The trip itself took five to twelve weeks.

AND then the same article also says:
"Yet, the "triangle trade" as considered in relation to New England was a piecemeal operation. No New England traders are known to have completed a sequential circuit of the full triangle, which took a calendar year on average, according to historian Clifford Shipton.[7]  [7. Curtis, Wayne. And a Bottle of Rum. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2006–2007....there's no mention of Shipton in this footnote.]

So I'm not sure how involved in this trade triangle the Sylvesters were...but it's pretty likely that they did profit from one or all three of the three arms of trade from Africa to America to Europe to Africa.

1781 auction of 620 Igbo captives to be sold straight off the slave-ship, from Nigeria to Jamaica. More the exception than the rule for their ethnicity to be noted, but many determined researchers of African-American origins have gone through existing archives to ferret out this information.

Some of this information has come to Wikepdia from the book by Mac Griswold, The Manor: Three Centuries at a Slave Plantation on Long Island, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2013. I haven't been able to find a copy of it yet.